Riglyne vir die Gebruik van Loodkern KoeŽls en Lood-hael

Johann van de Giessen |Wednesday, 05 October 2016 08:59 |Published in Conservation Policies.

Lood is Ďn swaar metaal wat in die natuur voorkom in lae konsentrasies en wat geen voordeel inhou vir die menslike liggaam nie. Inteendeel, verhoogde loodbloedvlakke kan lei tot ernstige afwykings in terme van die senuwee-, spysverterings- en voortplantingstelsel en dit affekteer ook sommige organe direk, veral die urienweg en niere. Loodbloedvlakke van 3 Ķg/dL (mikrogram lood per desiliter bloed) of 0.000003g/100ml, word as normaal beskou in die algemene volwasse bevolking, met 10 Ķg/dL wat gesien word as kommerwekkend en permanente gesondheidskade wat plaasvind by 80 Ķg/dL). Die gepaardgaande gesondheidsrisikoís vir die mens is veral sterk by, kinders, swanger vroue en vroue wat beplan om kinders te hÍ, en hierdie is ook die mees kwesbare groepe. Loodbloedvlakke bo 5 Ķg/dL word reeds as kommerwekkend hoog beskou.

Roof- en aasdiere en roof- en aasvoŽls is veral kwesbaar vanweŽ die feit dat hul verteringstelsels heelwat suurder is as die van die mens. Daarbenewens sluit voŽls se verteringstelsel boonop nog Ďn spiermaag ook in, wat verder bydra tot Ďn verhoogde opname van lood in die bloed van voŽls. As gevolg van die verhoogde oksidasie lei dit tot verhoogde biobeskikbaarheid van enige lood wat opgeneem word saam met hul kos.

Met inagneming van die risikoís vir mens en natuur beveel SA Jagters aan dat jagters hulself vergewis van die beskikbaarheid van alternatiewe koeŽls en patrone soos huidig op die mark beskikbaar is. Jagters word versoek om die geskiktheid en bruikbaarheid van alternatiewe ammunisie vir hul omstandighede en in hul toerusting te oorweeg en Ďn ingeligte besluit te neem oor die gebruik daarvan as deel van die bestuur van die risikoís wat met die gebruik van lood gepaard gaan. Indien u, vir watter rede ookal, besluit om steeds van lood koeŽls of -hael gebruik te maak, stel SA Jagters die volgende riglyne voor.

Riglyne vir die Gebruik van Konvensionele Loodkern KoeŽls vir Jag- en Skietdoeleindes

Omdat loodkern koeŽls opbreek of blom (mushroom) vind daar Ďn erge mate van loodbesmetting in en om die wondkanaal plaas en hierdie besmetting kan bydra tot Ďn verhoging in die loodbloedvlakke van enige dier of mens wat hierdie besmette dele benut. Verwyder die vleis in en om die wondkanaal en doen daarmee weg op so Ďn manier dat dit nie beskikbaar sal kom vir enige mens, roofdier of ĖvoŽl, of aasvoŽl nie. Ďn Studie deur die Brittish Association for Shooting and Conservation (BASC), het gewys dat deur slegs 5% van die vleis rondom die wondkanaal te verwyder, waar loodbesmetting die hoogste is, word 95% van die beskikbare lood verwyder.

Indien skuts met lood koeŽls skiet, byvoorbeeld in voorlaaiers, jaghandwapens, .22 randslag, windgewere en gewone sportskiet wapens, is dit verantwoordelik om eet, drink en rook te vermy, totdat die persoon die kans gehad het om sy/haar hande behoorlik met seep en water te was. Dieselfde beginsel geld dan ook met die herlaai van loodkoeŽls.

Indien daar van Ďn binnenshuise skietbaan gebruik gemaak word, moet verseker word dat die ventilasie van so Ďn aard is, dat die opbou van lood-stof verhoed word. Baie goeie kruisventilasie met positiewe druk is hiervoor nodig.

Indien Ďn skut gereeld deelneem aan probleemdierbeheer aktiwiteite, waar die herwinning van die karkas of nie moontlik is, of nie van belang is nie, of waar die karkasse van prooidiere beskikbaar gestel word aan aasdiere en die loodbesmette vleis nie verwyder word nie, beveel ons aan dat die skut om eerder gebruik te maak van alternatiewe, loodvrye koeŽls of patrone, beskikbaar op die mark. Hier is verskeie plaaslike sowel as ingevoerde produkte reeds beskikbaar.

Riglyne vir die Gebruik van Lood-hael vir die Jag van VoŽls en op Kleiteiken-skietbane

Vermy die skiet van jagvoŽls of kleiteikens in areas waar lood-hael in waterliggame kan val waar dit deur watervoŽls, wat filtreervoeders is, opgetel kan word. Hierdie waterliggame sluit in vleie, damme, panne riviere en strome. Indien die situasie nie vermy kan word nie, moet die jagter/skut te alle tye gebruik maak van gepaste alternatiewe ammunisie wat nie loodhael gebruik nie.

Indien daar in areas geskiet word waar daar roof- en aasvoŽls voorkom, is dit van kardinale belang dat geen karkasse of afval van prooi beskikbaar gestel word aan hulle nie, tensy daar verseker is dat die karkasse vry is van enige lood-haelkorrels. Dit sluit ook in om sover moontlik alle prooi te herwin wat geskiet is. Dit is veral van belang in situasies waar die jagter betrokke is in probleemdierbeheer, waar daar moontlik groot volumes voŽls geskiet mag word.

Met verwerking moet daar deurentyd gepoog word om alle haelkorrels uit die karkasse van prooi te verwyder, hetsy of dit is vir menslike of dierlike gebruik.

Indien Ďn skut herlaai vir haelgeweerskiet, is dit belangrik dat hy/sy te alle tye gepaste beskermende drag dra en direkte kontak met die haelkorrels tot Ďn minimum beperk. Vermy eet, drink of rook totdat die persoon die kans gehad het om sy/haar hande behoorlik met seep en water te was nadat u met lood gewerk het.

Algemeen

Indien daar uit die keerwal op Ďn skietbaan of vanuit die uitvalsone op Ďn kleiteikenbaan, lood herwin word, is dit belangrik dat die persone wat daarby betrokke is, te alle tye gepaste beskermende drag dra, omrede daar reeds oksidasie op die oppervlak van die loodkoeŽls en -haelkorrels plaasgevind het. Hierdie stof is onmiddellik beskikbaar vir opname in die bloedstroom. Dit is ook raadsaam om hierdie Ďn nat herwinningsproses te maak om te verhoed dat die lood-stof in die lug opgeskop en ingeasem word. Dieselfde geld vir skoonmaakpersoneel in veral binnenshuise skietbane.

Indien Ďn persoon betrokke is by die giet van koeŽls of die gooi van haelkorrels, heers daar ook Ďn daadwerklike gevaar van lood-dampe afkomstig van die gesmelte lood en is dit nodig om hierdie proses slegs aan te pak in goed geventileerde areas en met die nodige beskermende drag en toerusting. Loodoksied of Ėstof vergader ook in klere en in Ďn mens se hare, en dit is dus belangrik dat persone wat in bogenoemde aktiwiteite betrokke is besmette kledingstukke en hare gereeld was.

In enige geval waar daar besmetting van Ďn persoon se hande met loodpartikels, veral in die vorm van stof of geoksideerde lood is, is dit belangrik om nie te eet, drink of rook nie totdat die persoon die kans gehad het om sy/haar hande behoorlik met seep en water te was. Hierdie loodverbinding word direk opgeneem in die bloedstroom van die persoon.

Lood bly die mees effektiewe en koste-effektiewe materiaal in die gebruik van die vervaardiging van koeŽls en haelkorrels en alhoewel daar risikoís met die gebruik daarvan gepaardgaan, is meeste van die risikoís bestuurbaar en is dit oorbodig om summier weg te doen met die gebruik daarvan. Vir baie wapens, soos ouer gewere en haelgewere, .22 randslag-gewere en Ėhandwapens en luggewere, bestaan daar nie effektiewe alternatiewe vir lood ammunisie nie of is die alternatiewe se koste van so Ďn aard dat dit net tot gevolg sal hÍ dat Ďn groot persentasie van hierdie wapens in onbruik sal verval.

Goed nagevorsde studies, veral in Europa, het bewys dat die biobeskikbaarheid van lood in soliede vorm, om in die menslike bloedstroom opgeneem te kan word, redelik laag is. Die prentjie verander egter drasties wanneer gewerk word met, of mense blootgestel raak aan enige loodoksied of lood-stof.

Ken die risikoís en bestuur die impak daarvan.

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Gevare van loodvergiftiging

My beskeie mening as iemand wat jag (miskien nie soveel soos ander nie, maar darem 10 keer per jaar), natuurbewaarder en chemikus is die volgende:

Rakende die loodkwessie: die gebruik van lood in projektiele is standaardpraktyk oor die wÍreld heen omdat die soortlike gewig (digtheid) van lood net onder die van goud en wolfram lÍ en dienooreenkomstig die gewenste massa per volume verskaf om 'n effektiewe projektiel te maak.

1. Lood is een van die sg. swaarmetale wat op sekere natuurlewe 'n ernstige impak het en kan hÍ. Dis 'n gedokumenteerde feit dat die Kaliforniese kondor se feitlike uitsterwing deels aan loodkoeŽls toegeskryf kan word. Uit my eie werk met aasvoŽls is die ervarings as volg:
as 'n kransaasvoŽl Gyps coprotheres slegs vyf gram lood van 'n tipiese koeŽl inkry, is die voŽls gewaarborg om binne vyf weke of selfs korter te vrek.
Twee jong King vultures Sarcorampus papa is in die Nasionale Dieretuin in Pretoria dood nadat hulle klein Diana-loodkoeŽls ingekry het omdat kinders windpistole in die Dieretuin ingeneem en afgevuur het.
My student, dr. Erica van Wyk, het op vyf spesies aasvoŽls gewerk en die bloedtoksikologie ondersoek en die resultate was kommerwekkend want meeste van die eksemplare wat in die ondersoek gebruik is het sub-letale vlakke van lood in hul sisteme gehad.

2. Lood vir haelgeweerjag is in die hele Kanada en verskeie VSA state verban as gevolg van loodkontaminasie.

3. Daar is geen rede om te glo dat lood nie nadelig op aasdiere sal inwerk nie: ek het verskeie aasvoŽls in my lewe verloor as gevolg van loodvergiftiging, as gevolg van jag, as gevolg van kwes, ens.

4. As mens 'n X-straalfoto van 'n bok se blad neem waardeur 'n gewone loodkoeŽl is, dan sal jy nooit ooit daardie vleis gebruik nie want die spikkels lood is soos 'n mosaiek in die vleis. Om sulke vleis vir jou hond aan te bied is stadige moordpleeg.

5. Lood is 'n bio-akkumulatiewe metaal wat met tyd saam in die organisme opbou tot dit toksiese vlakke bereik en daarna sal die organisme kliniese simptome vertoon en vrek indien drastiese terapie nie toegepas word nie. Om lood uit 'n organisme te loog, verg spesialisbehandeling en glo my dat ek met jare se ervaring nog nie daarin kon slaag om 'n aasvoŽl suksesvol te behandel nie, selfs nie saam met 'n span bekwame veeartse nie.

6. Suiwer koper projektiele is juis ontwerp om die drukprobleem met monolitiese koeŽls te bowe te kom. Alhoewel die snelheid van die projektiele hoŽr is as die van loodkernkoeŽls is die resultate in die jagveld ongelooflik. Ek het nog nooit 'n koeŽl uit enige dier gehaal nie en die skote het almal die diere effektief en netjies gedood. Vleisskade is uiters gering en lood is AFWESIG in die proses.

7. As 'n bewaringspersoon kyk ek skeef na mense wat nie van hulle oeroue tradisies wil afwyk nie en steeds voortgaan met praktyke wat onaanvaarbaar uit 'n moderne oogpunt is. Daar is te veel mense op die aarde en as elkeen sy of haar tradisies wat negatief vir die natuur is wil handhaaf, is die aarde oppad na 'n uitwissing van alle lewe.

8. Soos ons in Engels sÍ: 'by all means', skiet jou loodkernprojektiele op die skietbaan waar die lood gevang word, maar in die jagveld het die jagter 'n verantwoordelikheid om die natuur te bewaar en nie die plek vol ekstra toksiene te pomp nie.

Skrywer: Prof Gerhard Verdoorn.
Bron: SA Jagter / Hunter November 2006.

Om dit 'n stappie verder te voer:
Hoekom die moontlikheid van loodvergiftiging, hoe gering ookal, op ons skietbane te laat voortleef?
Dit terwyl suiwer koperkoeŽls soos GS Custom se geweldige, hoŽ graad van eenvormigheid van een vervaardigingslot tot die volgende dit moontlik maak om soveel minder koeŽls hoef weg te skiet om akkuraatheid elke keer te toets.
Gebruik die beste en kry die beste resultate!

HawkWatch -


Hunting and fishing result in the deposition of thousands of tons of lead into the North American environment every year. While foraging, wildlife species can be exposed to lead and may die of lead poisoning. Such mortalities have been documented in a wide array of birds including waterfowl, shorebirds, piscivores, songbirds, and raptors. Poisoning of California Condors, Common Loons, Trumpeter Swans, and Bald Eagles is of special concern because it may have population-level effects.

Recent research reveals that legislation banning the use of lead shot in waterfowl hunting has reduced the amount of waterfowl lead poisoning and the extent of Bald Eagle lead poisoning. Such declines demonstrate that switching to nontoxic shot can protect wildlife populations and improve the environment.

Similar regulations are being established to minimize lead deposition associated with upland game hunting and fishing. Available alternatives provide hunters and anglers with options that allow them to perform well, to excel at their sport, and to minimize lead exposure to wildlife. Because hunters and anglers cherish the outdoors and value wildlife, they may find that the increased cost of ammunition and tackle is offset by the knowledge that they are helping to protect wildlife from lead poisoning. This recognition may begin to fuel voluntary shifts to nontoxics in areas without regulatory restrictions.

To facilitate such shifts, HawkWatch will engage in an outreach effort to expose sports enthusiasts to the dangers of lead tackle and ammunition and to the benefits of using nontoxic alternatives.

Lead poisoning eyed as threat to California condor -


By John Ritter, USA TODAY - Posted 10/23/2006.

One of the great feel-good environmental stories of the past 30 years is the recovery of the majestic California condor, North America's largest bird, a scavenger-turned-billboard for the campaign to save endangered species.

On the brink of extinction, saved by a captive-breeding program, the condor population has grown from just 22 birds in 1982 to 289 today; 135 are in the wild and more are released every year.

Even so, condors have failed to gain a secure foothold in the hills and deserts of California and Arizona because of lead poisoning, the most often diagnosed cause of death, environmentalists say.

Environmental groups say the most likely source is condors' eating of game that was shot by hunters using lead bullets. Frustrated that most hunters have not switched to substitutes, the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and other groups notified California officials in July that they will sue under the Endangered Species Act to force a ban.

At a meeting of state fish and game staff this month to discuss potential hunting-rule changes to recommend, the groups again asked for a ban on lead ammunition. A decision is likely early next year. Lead shot used in shotguns to hunt waterfowl has been prohibited since the 1980s.

Andrew Wexler of the NRDC's endangered species project says, "The commissioners have a historic opportunity. It's a mystery why they've resisted a ban because the scientific evidence is so overwhelming."

That evidence isn't conclusive, says Steve Williams, president of the Wildlife Management Institute, whose goal is to restore North American wildlife. "There are other potential pathways for lead," says Williams, a former director of the Fish and Wildlife Service in the Bush administration. "I wouldn't speculate on what those other sources may be." He's "happy to learn that hunters are taking action on their own" but says more study is needed.

Many hunters who have tried alternatives, mainly copper bullets that don't poison wildlife, find them as good or better than traditional ammunition, though more expensive. A high-performance copper bullet costs $2 to $2.50, about $1 more than lead.

At a "free shoot" last weekend at a range near Pinnacles National Monument in Central California ó prime condor habitat ó hunters and ranchers were invited to try copper bullets. In questionnaires filled out afterward, more than 90% approved.

Alternative efforts
Some groups, such as the National Shooting Sports Foundation, oppose a ban, though they support efforts to reduce lead exposure in condors and other animals that feed on carrion, eagles among them. These groups say voluntary hunting practices would achieve the same goal, including removing carcasses from the field and burying "gut piles," an animal's inedible portions.

"Clearly hunters have shown in studies that they're very willing to adopt one of those management steps," says Rick Patterson, director of the shooting foundation, which sets standards for firearms and ammunition manufacturing. He says studies have shown that some hunters resist the added cost of copper bullets.

Under the microscope
The coalition that threatened the lawsuit says a July study that analyzed blood of condors in the wild and compared it with blood of captive birds proves that lead from bullets is poisoning and killing condors.

The study in the journal Environmental Science & Technology was the first to identify a lead isotope in bullets bought at retail outlets in condor country and then match it to lead found in condor blood. Twenty of 26 condors sampled had high lead levels, and many exceeded levels toxic to humans.

"It's very analogous to situations we still encounter with kids who eat chips of lead-based paint," says Donald Smith, a professor of environmental toxicology at the University of California, Santa Cruz, who worked on the study. "The chip might be small but have very high levels of lead in it, and it doesn't take much to cause lead poisoning."

Supporters of a lead ban say hunters and their families also are at risk. Studies in Greenland and Canada have found elevated lead levels in people who eat seabirds and other animals shot with lead ammunition. On contact, a lead bullet fragments into tiny pieces and powder that disperses well beyond the wound.

"Subsistence hunters especially who hunt for most of their protein, if they have kids in the household, to me that's a significant potential risk," Smith says.

Condors, flying as high as 15,000 feet with 9-foot wingspans, spot a meal and go straight to the bullet wound, because that's the easiest place to feed. They'll eat almost any dead mammal, from a squirrel to a cow.

California's fish and game commission last year rejected an emergency ban on lead bullets, and bills in the Legislature to outlaw them in hunting died twice. Groups such as Ventana Wildlife Society urge an approach like Arizona's. The state offered free non-lead bullets to hunters last year in areas frequented by condors. Nearly two-thirds accepted them, and condor lead-exposure rates fell 40% from 2004, according to Arizona's game and fish department.

Ventana wants California lawmakers to approve $200,000 a year for five years to pay for coupons that hunters could redeem for free or reduced-price non-lead bullets. "That's a million bucks. Big deal," says Ventana's president, Kelly Sorenson. "Compared to the total cost we're spending on the condor recovery program, it's a small price to pay."

That program, involving state and federal agencies, zoos, foundations and universities, has cost at least $40 million, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service says.

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January 2011

A most recent study on the importance of sufficient levels of Calcium in a human body, revealed that Lead is a Calcium antagonist:
"Lead and cadmium antagonize and replace calcium in the bones and elsewhere. Hidden lead toxicity, for example, is an important cause of weak bones and osteoporosis. Tests for toxic metals may not reveal it when it is deeply embedded within the bones. A hair analysis may reveal it later as it comes out of the body through the hair and other routes."

The same study also revealed that Copper is a Calcium synergist:
"Copper is required to fix calcium in the bones and helps raise the tissue calcium level. Many people have biologically unavailable copper which causes their calcium problems. In fast oxidizers, copper deficiency contributes to a calcium deficiency."
Read more about the importance of Calcium in your body
.

December 2012 -

Lead poisoning -


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia -

Lead poisoning (also known as plumbism, colica Pictonum, saturnism, Devon colic, or painter's colic) is a medical condition caused by increased levels of the heavy metal lead in the body. Lead interferes with a variety of body processes and is toxic to many organs and tissues including the heart, bones, intestines, kidneys, and reproductive and nervous systems. It interferes with the development of the nervous system and is therefore particularly toxic to children, causing potentially permanent learning and behavior disorders. Symptoms include abdominal pain, confusion, headache, anemia, irritability, and in severe cases seizures, coma, and death.

Routes of exposure to lead include contaminated air, water, soil, food, and consumer products. Occupational exposure is a common cause of lead poisoning in adults. According to estimates made by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), more than 3 million workers in the United States are potentially exposed to lead in the workplace. One of the largest threats to children is lead paint that exists in many homes, especially older ones; thus children in older housing with chipping paint are at greater risk. Prevention of lead exposure can range from individual efforts (e.g. removing lead-containing items such as piping or blinds from the home) to nationwide policies (e.g. laws that ban lead in products or reduce allowable levels in water or soil).

Elevated lead in the body can be detected by the presence of changes in blood cells visible with a microscope and dense lines in the bones of children seen on X-ray. However, the main tool for diagnosis is measurement of the blood lead level or a urine test. When blood lead levels are recorded, the results indicate how much lead is circulating within the blood stream, not the amount being stored in the body. There are two units for reporting blood lead level, either micrograms per deciliter (Ķg/dl), or micrograms per 100 grams (Ķg/100 g) of whole blood, which are both numerically equivalent. The Centers for Disease Control (US) has set the standard elevated blood lead level for adults to be 25 (Ķg/dl) of the whole blood. For children however, the number is set much lower at 5 (Ķg/dl) of blood as of 2012 down from a previous 10 (Ķg/dl). Children are especially prone to the health effects of lead and as a result, blood lead levels must be set lower and closely monitored if contamination is possible. The major treatments are removal of the source of lead and chelation therapy (administration of agents that bind lead so it can be excreted).

Humans have been mining and using this heavy metal for thousands of years, poisoning themselves in the process. Although lead poisoning is one of the oldest known work and environmental hazards, the modern understanding of the small amount of lead necessary to cause harm, did not come about until the latter half of the 20th century. No safe threshold for lead exposure has been discovered ó that is, there is no known amount of lead that is too small to cause the body harm.

Hunting as an Exposure route -

Because game animals can be shot using lead bullets, the potential for consumption of game meat to represent an avenue for lead ingestion has seen clinical and epidemiological study. In a recent study conducted by the CDC, a cohort from North Dakota was enrolled and asked to self-report historical consumption of game meat, and participation in other activities that could cause lead exposure. The study found that participants' age, sex, housing age, current hobbies with potential for lead exposure, and game consumption were all associated with blood lead level (PbB).

This study has been cited by popular media as simple evidence that hunting increases exposure to lead poisoning, prompting the University of Illinois Extension to release a statement that there is no such risk. Concerning the CDC report, the authors' conclusion in a related Epi-AID Trip Report, notes the small increase associated with game consumption in the study,

and urges interpretation with respect to environmental context:
While this study suggests that consumption of wild game meat can adversely affect PbB, no participant had PbB higher than the CDC recommended threshold of 10μg/dlóthe level at which CDC recommends case management; and the geometric mean PbB among this study population (1.17μg/dl) was lower than the overall population geometric mean PbB in the United States (1.60 μg/dl). The clinical significance of low PbB in this sample population and the small quantitative increase of 0.30μg/dl in PbB associated with wild game consumption should be interpreted in the context of naturally occurring PbB.

Some hunters may argue that lead-based bullets offer greater accuracy and more humane kills of game animals than might copper-based bullets, which represent the most commonly available, though expensive, alternative to lead. Bullet designs vary greatly, and some lead-based bullets are highly resistant to fragmentation, offering hunters the ability to clean game animals with negligible risk of including lead fragments in prepared meat. Other bullets are prone to fragmentation and exacerbate the risk of lead ingestion from prepared meat. In practice, use of a non-fragmenting bullet, and proper cleaning of the game animal's wound, can eliminate the risk of lead ingestion from eating game; however, isolating such practice to experimentally determine its association with blood lead levels in study, is difficult to do.

When reading the above, always bear the following findings/guidelines in mind:

(i) ... "Uit my eie werk met aasvoŽls is die ervarings as volg:
as 'n kransaasvoŽl "Gyps coprotheres" slegs vyf gram lood van 'n tipiese koeŽl inkry, is die voŽls gewaarborg om binne vyf weke of selfs korter te vrek." ~ Dr Gerhard Verdoorn - lees artikel aan die begin van hierdie blad.

(ii) ... "there is no known amount of lead that is too small to cause the body harm."

"No sensible decision can be made any longer without taking into account not only the world as it is, but the world as it will be." ~ Isaac Asimov.